Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now used routinely to treat advanced or metastatic urothelial and renal cell carcinoma, among other cancers. Furthermore, multiple trials are currently exploring their role in adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and noninvasive (eg, high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) settings. Consequently, urologists are increasingly confronted with patients who are on, have recently received, or will be treated with ICI therapy. The care of these patients is likely to be shared between urologists and medical oncologists, with additional occasional support of other medical specialties. Therefore, it is important that urologists have good knowledge of immune-related side effects. Here, we provide advice on prevention, early diagnosis, and clinical management of the most relevant toxicities to strengthen urologists’ insight and, thus, role in the multidisciplinary management in the new immunotherapy era.
Immune therapy is a common treatment for many patients with advanced cancer. We describe common side effects of this treatment, and advise how they are best prevented and managed.